A blueprint of stem cell-based tooth regeneration with a scaffold-free approach. Schematic procedures of stem cell-based scaffold-free tooth regeneration in humans. The procedures include induction of iPSCs or epithelial derived stem cells into epithelial (epi.) sheets and induction of iPSCs or dental mesenchymal (mes.) stem cells into mesenchymal masses with odontogenic potential, tissue recombination, in vitro organ culture of the recombinants to the late bud or early cap stage, implantation of bioengineered tooth germs into the lost tooth sites of patients, and regeneration of functional replacement teeth.