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Table 1 A short description about causes and current therapy of the vaginal reconstruction

From: Scaffold strategies combined with mesenchymal stem cells in vaginal construction: a review

Factors which can promote the vaginal abnormalities Conventional therapies to vaginal reconstruction Critical issues regarding conventional therapies
I. Genetic alterations McIndoe technique: reconstruction of the vaginal canal through full-thickness skin grafting; surgical methods. Continuous use of molds until complete epithelialization
II. Hormonal alterations Frank’s technique: progressive dilation for distension and the creation of a vaginal neocavity; non-surgical methods. Requires great motivation and persistence from patients
III. Epigenetic factors Vecchietti technique; laparoscopic approach Pain during vaginal traction, lack of lubrication and prolonged use of vaginal prostheses.