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Table 3 Summary of gradient technologies and their use in cell applications

From: Insights into the present and future of cartilage regeneration and joint repair

Technology Hydrogel Microfluidics Plasma polymer/ polymer surface Nano-gradient
Type of gradient
Stiffness Migration (Kim et al., 2015),
Differentiation (Oh et al., 2016),
Other cell behavior (Hadden et al., 2017; Idaszek et al., 2019)
NA NA No studies found
Chemical/Attachment Other cell behavior (Idaszek et al., 2019) NA Differentiation (Liu et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2015) No studies found
Biomolecular Culturing/Growth (Mahadik et al., 2014),
Migration (Addington et al., 2015),
Differentiation (O’Grady et al., 2019; Smith Callahan et al., 2013),
Other cell behavior (Idaszek et al., 2019)
Culturing/Growth (Mahadik et al., 2014),
Migration (Won et al., 2014),
Differentiation (O’Grady et al., 2019; Chung et al., 2005)
Culturing/Growth (Faia-Torres et al., 2015; Miller et al., 2011),
Other cell behavior (Harding et al., 2012)
Differentiation (Andreasson et al., 2020a; Andreasson et al., 2020b)
  1. The reviewed literature is listed in the table to summarize the technology, type of gradient used, and what it was aimed to study. Gradient technology is indicated horizontally and gradient type vertically. The studied cellular responses are grouped into migration, differentiation, culturing/growth, and other cell behavior that vary significantly and are specific for each study.