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Table 1 The intestinal cells capable of self-renewal or de-differentiation

From: Intestinal epithelial plasticity and regeneration via cell dedifferentiation

Marker Lineage Overlapping expression Tissue Damage model Mechanism Reference
Bmi1 +4 reserve stem cells Lgr5, Prox1, mTert, Krt19 Small Intestine Irradiation, ablation of Lgr5+ through Lgr5-DTR mice Unclear (Lopez-Arribillaga et al. 2015; Sangiorgi and Capecchi 2008; Tian et al. 2011; Yan et al. 2012)
Enteroendocrine cells Prox1 Small Intestine Irradiation Open chromatin (Jadhav et al. 2017; Yan et al. 2017)
Hopx +4 reserve stem cells Lgr5, mTert, Krt19 Small Intestine Unclear (Takeda et al. 2011)
Regenerative stem cells ATOH1 Colon DSS-induced colitis Oxygen tension (Wang et al. 2019)
Lrig1 Active ISCs Lgr5 Small Intestine Negative regulation of ErbB signaling (Wong et al. 2012)
+4 reserve stem cells Lgr5, Hopx, mTert, Krt19 Small intestine and colon Irradiation Negative regulation of ErbB signaling (Powell et al. 2012)
Tert +4 reserve stem cells Lgr5, Bmi1, Mex3a Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (Barriga et al. 2017; Breault et al. 2008; Montgomery et al. 2011)
Dclk1 +4 reserve stem cells Msi1 Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (May et al. 2008; Nakanishi et al. 2013)
Tuft cells Small intestine and colon Irradiation, DSS-induced colitis Unclear (Gerbe et al. 2009; Westphalen et al. 2014)
LRCsa Secretory progenitors (short-term) Lgr5, Hopx, Dll1, ATOH1, Sox9, Krt19 Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (Buczacki et al. 2013; Li et al. 2016; Roche et al. 2015)
Paneth and Enteroendocrine -like cells (long-term) Lyz1, c-Kit Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (Li et al. 2016; Roche et al. 2015)
Dll1 Secretory progenitors Sox9, ATOH1, Krt19 Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (van Es et al. 2012)
ATOH1 Secretory progenitors Lgr5, Dll1, Hopx Small intestine and colon Irradiation, DSS-induced colitis Multisite phosphorylation of ATOH1 (Ishibashi et al. 2018; Tomic et al. 2018)
Sox9 LRCs Lgr5, Bmi1, Hopx, Lrig1, Dclk1, Dll1 Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (Roche et al. 2015)
Krt19 Upper crypts Lgr5, Bmi1, Hopx, Lrig1, mTert, Dll1 Small intestine and colon 5-FU, ablation of Lgr5+ through Lgr5-DTR mice Unclear (Asfaha et al. 2015)
Lyz1 Paneth cell c-Kit Small Intestine Irradiation, inflammation SCF/c-Kit/Wnt pathway, forced activation of Notch pathway (Schmitt et al. 2018; Yu et al. 2018)
Alpi Enterocyte progenitor Small Intestine Ablation of Lgr5+ through Lgr5-DTR mice Unclear (Tetteh et al. 2016)
CD69, CD274 Goblet cell progenitor Small Intestine Ablation of Lgr5+ through Lgr5-DTR mice Open chromatin (Jadhav et al. 2017)
Prox1 Enteroendocrine cells, tuft cells Bmi1 Small Intestine Irradiation Unclear (Yan et al. 2017)
Mex3a Quiescent stem cells Lgr5 Small Intestine 5-FU, ionizing radiation Unclear (Barriga et al. 2017)
Ascl2 Enterocyte progenitor and secretory progenitor Smoc2, Cdca7 Small intestine and colon Ablation of Lgr5+ through Lgr5-DTR mice Ascl2 to activate expression of its targets such as Il11ra1 (Murata et al. 2020)
Sca1 Repairing epithelium Lrig1 Colon DSS-induced colitis Reprogram into fetal-like state by activation of YAP/TAZ pathway (Yui et al. 2018)
Progeny of ISCs Small intestine Infection by H.polygyrus, irradiation, ablation of Lgr5+ through Lgr5-DTR mice IFN-γ-denpendent fetal-like transcriptional program (Nusse et al. 2018)
  1. aLRCs Nucleotide analog label-retaining cells