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Table 1 Pten knockout mice

From: Role of PTEN-less in cardiac injury, hypertrophy and regeneration

Conventional Knockout
Pten Exons Target cells Effect Years Ref.
Exons 3–5 ES cells Embryonic lethality 1998 (Suzuki et al. 1998)
Exons 4–5 ES cells Embryonic lethality 1998 (Di Cristofano et al. 1998)
Conditional Knockout
Floxed Exons Tissue specific deletion
Pten Exons Ref. Cre Target cells Effect Years Ref.
Exons 4–5 (Suzuki et al. 2001) Lck-Cre T cells Pten knockout T cells are autoreactive, hyperproliferate, resist apoptosis and secreate high level Th1/Th2 cytokines, show increased p-PKB/Akt and p-ERK 2001 (Suzuki et al. 2001)
Exons 4–5 Gfap-Cre Brain glial cells Mice showed enlarged brain and developed seizures and ataxia by 9 weeks and died by 29 weeks, Pten mutant cells shoewed an increased soma size and elevated p-Akt 2001 (Backman et al. 2001)
Exons 4–5 Mck-Cre Skeletal and cardiac muscle Knockou Pten induced heart hypertrophy without pathlogical change and decreaed heart contractility through mediating PI3Kγ 2002 (Crackower et al. 2002)
Exons 4–5 Alb-Cre Hepatocyte Mice showed massive hepatomegaly and steatohepatitis with triglyceride accumulation, hepatocytes showed hyperproliferation and abnormal activation of protein kinase B and MAPK 2004 (Horie et al. 2004)
Exons 4–5 Nse-Cre Differentiated neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus Mice showed abnormal social interaction and exaggerated responses to sensory stimuli, with activation of the Akt/ mTor/S6k pathway and inactivation of Gsk3β 2006 (Kwon et al. 2006)
Exons 4–5 Mck-Cre Skeletal and cardiac muscle Mice showed reduced pathological hypertrophy, less interstitial fibrosis, reduced apoptosis and marked preservation of LV function in aortic banding induced pressure overload model, and markedly reduced p-JNK1,p-JNK2 and p-p38 2008 (Oudit et al. 2008)
Exons 4–5 SM22α-Cre Smooth muscle cells Mice shopwed widespread medial SMC hyperplasia, vascular remodeling, and histopathology consistent with pulmonary hypertension 2008 (Nemenoff et al. 2008)
Exons 4–5 PdgfbiCreERT2 (Cre induced by tamoxifen) Endothelial cell Endothelial deletion of PTEN results in vascular hyperplasia because cannot regulate Notch-induced proliferation arrest. Both the catalytic and non-catalytic APC/C-Fzr1/Cdh1-mediated activities of PTEN are required for stalk cells’ proliferative arrest 2015 (Serra et al. 2015)
Exon 5 (Lesche et al. 2002; Groszer et al. 2001) Nestin-Cre Central nervous system stem/progenitor cells Mice deletion PTEN showed enlarged and abnormal brains, with increased cell proliferation, decreased cell death, and enlarged cell size 2001 (Groszer et al. 2001)
Exon 5 ARR2Probasin-Cre Prostatic epithelial cells Pten deletion successfully induced murine prostate cancer model 2003 (Wang et al. 2003)
Exon 5 Mx-1-Cre (Cre induced by polyinosine-polycytidine) Bone marrow Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) The ability of sustain haematopoietic reconstitution affected in Pten-deicient HSCs, mice with Pten deletion showed an increased representation of myeloid and T-lymphoid lineages and develop myeloproliferative disorder 2006 (Zhang et al. 2006)
Exon 5 Gdf-9-Cre Oocytes Lacking PTEN in oocytes activated the entire primordial folliclepool and caused premature ovarian failure 2008 (Reddy et al. 2008)
Exon 5 α-MHC-MerCreMer (Cre induced by tamoxifen) Cardiomyocytes PtenCKO hearts exhibited increased PI3K activity in baseline,and better function recovery after ischemia/reperfusion,with fewer apoptosis and higher level of ERK and BCL-2 expression 2009 (Ruan et al. 2009)
Exon 5 AAV- Cre Corticospinal neurons Deletion PTEN enhanced compensatory sprouting of of uninjured corticospinal tract axons and enabled regeneration of a cohort of injured corticospinal tract axons past a spinal cord lesion 2010 (Liu et al. 2010)
Exon 5 Pax7CreER Quiescent satellite cells Quiescent satellite cells specific knockout Pten lead to spontaneous activation and premature differentiation and resulted in failed regeneration. Mechanistically, Pten deletion increases Akt phosphorylation, further induced FoxO1 cytoplasmic translocation and Notch signalling suppression 2017 (Yue et al. 2017)
Exon 5 α-MHC-MerCreMer (Cre induced by tamoxifen) Cardiomyocytes Cardiac-specific knockout Pten in adult mice preserved heart function, decreased scar size and promoted cariomyocytes proliferation after myocardial infarction stress 2020 (Liang et al. 2020)